Oleh Pustovoit


The purpose of this article is to theoretically clarify the content of the concept of "competitiveness", to summarize the main results of institutional reforms in Ukraine, to test approaches to a more accurate macroeconomic assessment of the dynamics of competitiveness of major domestic commodity groups and technological complexity of foreign trade. Methodology. The article proposes to consider the concept of "competitiveness" as the level of compliance of goods (services) with consumer preferences of market participants. This conceptual position is used to interpret the basic competitiveness of large product groups and determine methods for its evaluation. The results of the assessment of the methodology and technique showed that in 2017-2019 the basic competitiveness of Ukrainian exports gradually increased, but in its composition the shares of certain types of raw materials and products of their shallow processing increased. At the same time, the competitiveness of consumer and investment products in the domestic market decreased and was gradually replaced by imported analogues. These trends suggest that Ukraine is selling more raw materials on international markets and producing fewer goods of higher technological sophistication with innovative or higher quality characteristics. Despite this, Ukraine's specialization in the global economy remains economically justified and effective. However, in the long run, this position of Ukraine is socially undesirable, as it holds back the development of the economy and throws it to the margins of technological progress. Practical implications. It is substantiated that, despite institutional changes, Ukraine has not approached the goal of increasing the level of competitiveness of products of high technological complexity, which have a relatively large share of added value. Value/originality. The study uses the dynamics of macroeconomic competitiveness of large commodity groups as a criterion of the effectiveness of institutional reforms in the country.

How to Cite

Article views: 4 | PDF Downloads: 6



institutional transformations, competitiveness, consumer preferences, market shares, foreign trade by technology complexity, unit value


Aiginger, K., Bärenthaler-Sieber, S., & Vogel, J. (2013). Competitiveness under new perspectives. WWW for Europe Working paper, 44. Available at:

Ambastha, A., & Momaya, K. (2004). Competitiveness of firms: review of theory, frameworks and models. Singapore management review, 26: 1, 45-61. Available at:

Atkinson, R. D. (2013, August). Competitiveness, Innovation and Productivity: Clearing up the Confusion. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. Washington, D.C. 7. р.

Borozan, D. (2008, May). Regional competitiveness: some conceptual issues and policy implications. Interdisciplinary management research, 4, 50-63. Available at:

Broekel, T. (2019, May). Using structural diversity to measure the complexity of technologies. PLOS Sustainability and Transformation. DOI:

Delgado, M., Ketels, С., Porter, M.E., & Stern, S. (2012, July). The determinants of national competitiveness. NBER Working paper, 18249. Available at:

De Loecker, J. (2004). Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. LICOS Discussion Paper, 151. Available at:

IMD World Competitiveness Center (2019). IMD World competitiveness yearbook 2019. International institute for management development. Lausanne. Available at:

Kostoska, O., Mitrevski, P. J., Angeleski, M., & Mancheski, G. (2012). Measuring the qualitative competitiveness of the Macedonian economy. In: Proc. of the 2nd International scientific conference "Researching economic development and entrepreneurship in transition economies" (REDETE 2012). Banja Luka. Available at:

Martin, R. L. (2003). A Study on the factors of regional competitiveness. A draft final report for the European commission directorate-General regional holicy. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Available at:

Panagiotis, A. P., Constantina, B., & Georgiou, E. A. (2010). Export Performance, Competitiveness and Commodity Composition. Working Papers, 114. Available at:

Siudek, T., & Zawojska, A. (2014). Competitiveness in the economic concepts, theories and empirical research. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Oeconomia, 13 (1): 91–108. Available at:

State Fiscal Service of Ukraine (2020). Total volume of imports and exports in terms of commodity items by UKTZED codes. Kyiv. Available at:

State Statistics Service of Ukraine (2020) Dynamics of the geographical structure of foreign merchandise trade. Kyiv. Available at:

State Statistics Service of Ukraine (2021). Capital investment by assets; Retail turnover of retail trade enterprises. Kyiv. Available at:

United Nations (2020). 2019 International Trade Statistics Yearbook. Vol. I., New York. Available at:

Wilson, P., Chem, T. S., Ping, T. S., & Robinson, E. (2002, September) Assessing Singapore’s Export Competitiveness through Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis. Occasional Paper, 23. Available at:

World Bank (2020). Goods exports (BoP, current US$): World Bank national accounts data. Washington, D.C. Available at:

World Economic Forum (2019). The global competitiveness report 2019. Geneva. Available at: