METHODS OF VALUATION OF ITEMS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING OF UKRAINIAN ENTERPRISES: UNIFICATION OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
The purpose of the paper is to unify the methods of valuation of items of financial reporting of Ukrainian enterprises on the basis of national and international standards. Methodology. The theoretical aspects of the study are based on international accounting and financial reporting standards, as well as national accounting regulations (standards). The applied aspects consist in specifying the methods of valuation of certain objects of accounting (assets, liabilities, income, expenses) and their reflection in the financial statements. The results of the paper made it possible to determine the conditions for the implementation of international accounting and financial reporting standards in Ukraine. It was shown that their implementation began in 2007 and was completed in 2012 by public joint stock companies due to the requirements for placement of securities on stock markets. The impact on the implementation of international accounting and financial reporting standards by Ukrainian enterprises in connection with the signing by Ukraine of the Association Agreement with the European Union was determined. The characteristics of the Anglo-American and continental accounting models, their regulatory standards, existing differences between US GAAP and IFRS/IAS, work on their harmonization with a view to creating an international accounting model were presented. The methods of valuation of items of financial reporting were systematized: historical cost, present value, net selling price, fair value or amount of expected compensation. Their advantages, disadvantages and scope of application were determined. The cost approach to the valuation of financial reporting items and the prospects for its use were examined in more detail. It was shown that enterprise value is characterized by indicators reflected in balance sheet, off-balance sheet and financial statements. The information model for determining the value of an enterprise on the basis of financial statements was proposed. The methods of value determination depending on the organizational and legal form of an enterprise were differentiated. The sources of formation of its market and fundamental value have been clarified. The informational capacity of the items of the financial statements of an enterprise was estimated. The practical implications include the creation of an information model for determining the value of the company according to financial reporting, the substantiation of recommendations for regrouping its items for the needs of management accounting, and the creation of additional reporting forms – a value statement and a value-added statement. Value/originality. The methodological recommendations for the harmonization of the systems of financial and management accounting of added value were substantiated in terms of: recognition of income generated by fully depreciated assets; capitalization of financial costs; use of 8-class accounts; off-balance sheet accounting to reflect non-financial information about capital and integrated added value of a company; simplification of the tax system by introducing a single value added tax, which will absorb income tax and lead to further harmonization of financial and tax accounting.
How to Cite
unification, methods, evaluation, financial reporting, item, Ukrainian enterprises, international standards
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