The purpose of the paper is to define peculiarities of innovation management at enterprises in Ukraine and EU countries. Methodology. Based on European Innovation Scoreboard data a comparative assessment of innovation management have done through three aspects: 1) resource capacity, 2) prospects of business entities innovation activity; 3) innovation activity effectiveness. Analyse for Ukraine has done in comparison with average EU data and also with Poland and Germany. Results. In the article, the place of Ukraine in Europe by innovation development has identified. Retrospective changes of innovation development in Ukraine, Poland, Germany and EU during 2008-2015 have analysed. Despite a big gap between Ukraine and EU in terms of resource capacities and innovation activity prospects of business entities, the level of Ukrainian economy effectiveness sin innovation sector stays stable. The authors have defined substantial differences between systems of innovation management at Ukrainian and European enterprises. Taking into consideration strategic priorities of growth areas of Ukraine and also its integration in EU economy, and based on a comparison of data presented in the European Innovation Scoreboard it was possible to single out a range of discrepancies characteristic of innovation activity management system of Ukrainian and European business entities: managers at Ukrainian enterprises prefer to spend on innovations that are not connected with researches and elaborations; in Ukrainian management system there is almost no experience of cooperation with foreign partners within innovation activity sector; in European countries there are more enterprises which introduce innovation but do not develop them themselves; Ukrainian enterprises’ managers lack experience in patenting according to the international Patent Cooperation Treaty and in registering trademarks, projects and designs according to the requirements of European Union Intellectual Property Office. Practical implications. The case study results make possible to innovation activity enterprises of Ukraine and European investor, which work in Ukraine, to develop more successful innovative development strategies of enterprises. Value/originality. The study has identified the necessary improvement direction of innovation management system of Ukrainian enterprises in the context of the specific features of innovation sector of the EU economy functioning.