INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FIGHT AGAINST THE ILLEGAL CIRCULATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

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Published: Dec 30, 2022

  Sima A. Suleimanli

Abstract

The subject of the study is the conceptual, theoretical, empirical, methodological and applied foundations of the international legal fight against the illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects in the conditions of economic integration. Methodology. General scientific and special legal methods were used in the research process. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects in conditions of economic integration as a social phenomenon were determined with the help of the analysis. The synthesis provided the formation of common features of negative and positive factors that hinder and facilitate the illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects. The comparative legal method allowed to identify the common and distinctive features of the international agreements in this area, as well as with regard to the implementation of their provisions in the national legislation of Ukraine and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The formal-legal method created the conditions for formulating conclusions on the effectiveness of measures defined by international and national legislation in combating the illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects. The purpose of the article is to identify the characteristics of the international legal fight against the illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects in the conditions of economic integration. The results of the study showed that the international legal fight against the illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects is reflected within the universal international legal, regional international legal and national levels, which are mediated by the legislation of general, special and national legal regimes. Conclusion. Characteristic signs of the deformation of the legal market for the circulation of cultural values have been revealed, taking into account the socio-political and economic conditions of the country in which it exists, the culture of the relevant people, and the level of regulatory and legal support that determines the rules for the civilized circulation of such objects. It has been established that the characteristic conditions under which the illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects takes place as a social phenomenon in today's conditions are: 1) interpenetration of the cultures of existing peoples within the framework of economic, political, legal and other spheres of society; 2) establishment of various forms and methods of exchange of similar goods in social life; 3) occupation of a corresponding niche by such objects in the spiritual, legal, social and economic content of such relations; 4) creation of conditions for access to such objects not only by representatives of the countries of origin, but also by other representatives of the world community, in particular through the means of the global Internet network; 5) as a result of the increase in value of such objects due to demand in society, especially due to illegal procedures; 6) in connection with the radicalization of social relations within certain countries or geopolitical formations, creation of conditions for illegal export of such objects from countries where armed conflicts are spreading. In terms of economic integration, the first level is significant, which is mediated by normative prescriptions of international legislation within the framework of the UNESCO Convention 1970 та UNIDROIT Convention 1995, the first of which has a more declarative and generalized nature on issues of normalization of rules of circulation of cultural heritage, and the second ensures the creation of legal structures for the return of illegally transferred cultural values in circulation using private law means. It is established that the instruments of the UNESCO Convention of 1954 with its attached protocols UNESCO Convention of 1954 with its attached protocols UNESCO 1954 Protocol to the Convention та UNESCO 1999 Second Protocol to the Convention make it impossible for criminal groups to finance their activities precisely at the expense of the sale of objects of cultural heritage, mediate the introduction of the category of crime under such circumstances as acts in the form of denial of the right to culture and consideration of the latter as a method of waging war. The cultural value approach of the given regulations is supported. The ways of implementation of the international standards of the fight against the illegal circulation of cultural heritage objects in the national legislation of Ukraine and the Republic of Azerbaijan are analyzed.

How to Cite

Suleimanli, S. A. (2022). INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FIGHT AGAINST THE ILLEGAL CIRCULATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. Baltic Journal of Economic Studies, 8(5), 36-48. https://doi.org/10.30525/2256-0742/2022-8-5-36-48
Article views: 230 | PDF Downloads: 167

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Keywords

cultural values, restitution, return, objects of cultural heritage, international legal struggle, illegal trafficking, convention

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