Published: May 23, 2023

  Andrii Buzarov


While the war launched by the Russian Federation against Ukraine in February 2022 was predicted by many analysts, few predicted the foreseeable problems associated with the settlement of Ukrainian migrant flows fleeing the war, both within Ukraine and beyond its borders to the European Union. Both scenarios have been met with unique challenges affecting the settlement of internal and external Ukrainian refugees, as well as counterintuitive patterns of success and failure that point to strategies of long-term cohesive integration. The aim of this study is to identify new qualitative aspects and specific features of the integration processes of Ukrainian migrants, which are characteristic of the social situation in the European Union that has developed after the aggression of the Russian Federation. Particular attention is paid to the new components of social relations, the accumulation of knowledge, which will make it possible to respond to new conflict factors, to develop inclusiveness and tolerance in accordance with the qualitative specificities of refugees arriving in the EU countries as a result of the war. Methodology. The system analysis of the institutional and legal framework of the adaptation process of Ukrainian refugees in the EU is based on the generalisation of the available official documents, published analytical materials and other types of public information related to the policies of European countries in the area of migration, and the activities of certain communities (organisations) of Ukrainians in the EU. The study of behavioural patterns of Ukrainian IDPs and refugees is based on the methods of direct observation of the author and generalisation of case studies. The method of classification of groups of migrants from Ukraine was used, taking into account their actual status and the purpose of moving to the EU. Due to the author's current extensive humanitarian and journalistic activities in the EU and Ukraine, the method of anonymous structured interviews with Ukrainian refugees was widely used. Results. Describing the current state of the institutional processes of adaptation of Ukrainians in various European countries, the author concludes that in the initial stages the already existing local Ukrainian communities played a significant role in the process of resettlement and adaptation of the refugees, while much depended on the displaced persons' own social and institutional contacts. In the later stages, the central and local authorities of the host countries and international humanitarian organisations played a predominant role. Depending on their status in the host country, migrants can be divided into the following groups: migrants who are permanent residents of a particular EU community and have the possibility of returning to their home country; migrants who are permanent residents of a particular EU community and do not have the possibility of returning to their home country; migrants who have been granted collective protection status in the EU but can return or have returned to permanent residence in Ukraine. The integration of those groups of migrants from Ukraine who plan to stay permanently in European countries should take into account their language, age, educational, labour and social characteristics.

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forced migrants, collective protection in the EU, adaptation of migrants, integration of migrants, Ukrainian community, migration


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