Published: Dec 30, 2022

  Olexandra Belz


The purpose of the article is to identify the most effective micro-markup schemes used in e-commerce projects. Methodology. The research included competitive intelligence among the leading online platforms operating in Europe in general and in Ukraine in particular. The study involved TOP-8 e-commerce projects in Ukraine and TOP-9 global cross-border marketplaces operating in Europe. The service was chosen as the research tool. Results. The study showed that the most popular micro-markup format is JSON-LD. In general, 82.4% of the surveyed sites use JSON-LD microdata format. Some sites use two microdata formats: JSON-LD and Microdata. But none of the top online marketplaces use the RDFa micro-markup format. Popular marketplaces operating in Ukraine and Europe often use the same types of vocabulary. However, the frequency of using micro-markup by top marketplaces operating in Ukraine is much higher than the frequency of using micro-markup by top marketplaces operating in Europe. In addition, Ukrainian marketplaces use a much wider list of micro-markup properties than marketplaces operating in Europe. However, no online store has implemented the properties of advantages and disadvantages of goods recommended by Google in the scheme. Practical implications. The study suggests micro-markup schemes for homepage, category page, product page, about page, payment and delivery page, warranty and returns page, contact page and blog. The proposed templates of micro-markup schemes were validated using the service. The study recommends using the JSON-LD format for semantic markup of website content. Value/originality. Implementation of effective semantic markup of site content will allow search engines to more accurately identify the information presented on the site. This, in turn, will improve the visibility of the online marketplace in the Search Engine Results Page of Google, Bing, Yahoo! etc.

How to Cite

Belz, O. (2022). USE OF SCHEMA.ORG MICRO-MARKUP IN E-COMMERCE PROJECTS. Three Seas Economic Journal, 3(4), 1-6.
Article views: 108 | PDF Downloads: 148



e-commerce, online marketplaces,, semantic markup of site content, SEO, micro-markup of site content, formats JSON-LD, Microdata and RDFa


Bizer C., Primpeli A., Peeters R. (2019, April 12). Using the Semantic Web as a Source of Training Data. Available at:

Common Crawl (2022, November/December). November/December 2022 crawl archive now available. Available at:

Cross-Border Commerce Europe (2022). TOP 100 Marketplaces in Europe: Annual Ranking 2022. Available at:

Google Search Central (2022). Product (Product, Review, Offer) structured data. Available at:

Google Search Central (2022, August 5). New in structured data: Pros and cons. Available at:

Krotovskaia, O. (2022, August 15). Ukraintsi pochaly chastishe tsikavytysia tsinamy na haz i dyvytysia filmy: top-25 saitiv za lypen 2022 roku [Ukrainians became more interested in gas prices and watching movies: top 25 sites for July 2022]. Available at: (in Ukrainian)

Muhleisen, H., & Bizer, C. (2012). Web Data Commons – Extracting Structured Data from Two Large Web Corpora. WWW2012 workshop: Linked Data on the Web (LDOW2012). Lyon, France, 16 April, 2012. Available at: (2022). Full Hierarchy. Available at: (2022). Organization of Schemas. Available at:

Selvam, R. K., & Kejriwal, M. (2020, July 27). On using Product-Specific from Web Data Commons: An Empirical Set of Best Practices. KDD ’20, August, 2020, San Diego, California. Available at:

Tonon A., Felder V., Difallah D. E., & Cudre-Mauroux P. (2016). VoldemortKG: Mapping and Web Entities to Linked Open Data. In ISWC. Springer International Publishing, 2016. Available at:

Web Data Commons (2022, September 22). Web Data Commons – Table Annotation Benchmark. Available at:

Zosimov, V., Bulgakova, O. & Pozdeev, V. (2021). Semantic Profile of Corporate Web Resources. Selected Papers of the VIII International Scientific Conference ‘Information Technology and Implementation’ (IT&I-2021). Workshop Proceedings. Kyiv, Ukraine, December 1–3, 2021, 389–397. Available at: